Carmine, S. & Smith, W. K., (2021). “Organizational Paradox.”, In Oxford Bibliographies in Management. Ed. Ricky Griffin. New York: Oxford University Press.


Organizational paradox offers a theory of the nature and management of competing demands. Paradox theory has its roots in late 1970’s and 1980’s, when management scholarsdrawing from a variety of disciplinesestablished paradox as a core lens through which to understand organizational phenomena. Smith & Lewis (2011) defined paradox as “contradictory, yet interrelated elements that exist simultaneously and persist over time” (p. 382). This theory has been developed in the last decades arguing that actors need to accept, engage and navigate tensions rather than resolve them, in order to release their potential. In 2014 paradox theory has been proposed as a metatheory, which can be used to study and it can offer insights across various phenomena and theories. The current work offers a compendium of the foundations, pillars, uses and methods of organizational paradox literature

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